also: List of Economic Topics

– macroeconomics

recession is usually defined in macroeconomics
as a fall of a country’s Gross National Product in two successive quarters. (This
is a simplified version of that of the business-cycle dating committee of the
National Bureau for Economic Research, a U.S.-based think tank.) Combined with
inflation this process is known as stagflation.

sustained recession is known as an economic depression. (Alternatively, a depression
is a situation where the economy “has fallen and can’t get up.”) A short-lived
recession is often called an economic correction. However, many theorists including
John Kenneth Galbraith believe that there is no reasonable distinction between
the three types of recesssion, other than a desire to downplay risk of a panic.
In the nineteenth century, such theorists point out, business cycle events of
the same magnitude were typically called “crises” or “panics”.

avoid all these politically loaded terms, the more neutral term ‘recession’ is
to be preferred, despite the overly-specific technical economics definition. The
politics implied by the current definition, including the assumption of relevance
of Gross National Product to human well-being, or the desirability/necessity of
reporting by quarter-years, are challenged in some theories of a larger political
economy consisting of voting, market, and other activities.

said, there is little challenge to the idea that GNP (or GDP) are related to job
availability in a wage-employment economy, nor to the idea that business confidence
and consumer spending tend to decrease during a recession, which is usually a
crisis of trust.

are mostly caused by economic shocks. The greatest, worldwide recession that humanity
has ever experienced was the beginning of the Great Depression (late 1920s and
1930s); other notable recessions include the two Oil Crises in the 1970s and the
Long Depression of the late nineteenth century. The sharpest recession on record
is that following the First World War when hyperinflation hit much of Europe;
this recession did not last very long, however.

can be difficult to understand the seeming decrease in available money during
a recession when no money is physically destroyed. Suppose you have 250 million
people living in a huge hall and there is a recession in the hall, no money went
into or left the hall. Where did all the money go? In fact money actually can
be destroyed, but it’s hard to see where and when.

to the Great Depression a huge wave of investing in the stock market had taken
place which created artificially high prices of stock. This process was driven
by the fact that shares were being used as a collateral for loans in order to
buy more stocks. When the economy showed signs of slowing and share prices plummeted,
this caused an extensive domino effect. The investments lost their face value
and the loans on them “went bad”, which, among other things, triggered
a crisis of the banking system. In consequence, there was the famous rush on banks,
with people not being able to access their deposits. They had disappeared. After
this, people grew extremely wary of investment which resulted in extreme deflation.

the amount of “hard” money (also referred to as Central Bank Money)
can only be changed within certain restrictions, this is not the total amount
of money that an economy relies on. The latter is a multiple of the former, determined
by factors like the speed of exchange and the reserve policy of a central bank,
or of other banks who borrow from that central bank.

is some debate as to whether or not a recession is a normal part of the business
cycle. The definition is set where it is (reduction in GNP for two successive
quarters) because this is supposed to be an unusual event, outside the normally-expected
cycles in which no more than one quarter should go by without some kind of growth.
An alternative view of this is that of Karl Marx for whom economic “crisis”
is symptomatic of a dysfunctional society, capitalism, forcing valuable social
resources to be destroyed in order to return the system to profitability. Another
alternative view is that the GNP and GDP are relevant only to waged jobs, and
that the expansion of money supply to support certain activities, e.g. chronic
hospital care, political lobbying, advertising, can encourage those activities
even though they actually represent declines in quality of life. So it all depends
on what you mean by ‘normal’, and whether you think the definition is relevant
to it.

fact that parties and theories compete to set policies, and have the power to
set definitions on such terms as ‘recession’ or ‘depression’, and explain their
meaning to the public as authority figures, leads to larger questions in political
economy, specifically those explored in political choice theory.

example of the importance of this is the Great Depression itself. When President
Franklin D. Roosevelt entered office in 1933, he was intending to continue a relatively
conservative fiscal policy to placate his business critics (Herbert Hoover in
particular had warned him that any controversial early action would affect business
confidence very adversely). However, after Black Monday Roosevelt was forced to
change his mind, and instituted the “New Deal” economic reforms to stave
off any future depressions. Contrary to myth, Roosevelt did not engage in sustained
deficit spending until World War II neared, so that the Depression continued.

date no repetitions of the Great Depression have happened in the United States.
At least, none politicians and the media call “depressions”, regardless
of their impact on actual human lives. However, Japan suffered from a depression
during the 1990s, while this word may be used to describe the situation of many
poorer countries.

is an open question whether a “depression” can even be noticed at all
under the terminology in use among technical economists today. Galbraith among
others thought it could not, and that the terminology was merely exercise in concealment
– a potent criticism from an economist who was a central part of that Administration
during the war years.


of recessions
Business cycle
Central bank
Job cut
Job exportation
Measuring well-being
Money supply
Political economy

Colombian Companies to begin export of cannabis to Canadian companies

Clever Leaves is a licensed Columbian producer of pharmaceutical-grade medical marijuana. It is the first company to get permission for exporting cannabis to Canada. This vertically-integrated company has attained a high-level success as Colombia has recently announced the legalization of medical cannabis.
On similar notes, Khiron Life Sciences Corporation has announced a partnership with US-based company Dixie which is another move to authorize cannabis export. Khiron Life Sciences is a Colombia-based company serving urgent-care requirements.
PharmaCielo, a Colombian cannabis company has attained an export license for medical marijuana oils. The beginning of its commercial sales has given a positive move to the company and it is looking forward to attaining great results with the advantage of legalized cannabis.
The government agency responsible for national public health of medical industry has permitted Clever Leaves for importing the dry cannabis flower from Colombia to Canada for testing purposes. This is by far the first time any Colombian company has been permitted to grow legal cannabis for some other nation. Clever Leaves fulfills all the requirements given by Health Canada for obtaining permission for import.
The Colombian government has regulated the use of cannabis only for medicinal usage. The cultivation has been done in a fair way to pass the inspection and get ahead with the positive notes for the company. At present, the Colombian government allows the export of cannabis oil only and dry cannabis flower is not permissible. Clever Leaves has always tried to accomplish the credibility of the company inch-by-inch to compete with the PharmaCielo Colombia Holdings. The company’s aim for commercial sales have almost begun and seems to pass all the standards.
Even if the dry-flower sales are not feasible, it is a major step for ensuring that the product is in compliance with the international medical cannabis standards and meets the quality in terms of every important aspect. The test results of the products being exported will determine the scope of the company to ship medical cannabis oil to the Canadian licensed operators in the future. Clever Leaves will subsequently begin the sale of CBD products in Europe and high-THC medical products in the German market. Clever Leaves was founded in 2017 and within 2 years of their operation, they claim to have strong business ethics and the working team of 200+ employees.
The company PharmaCielo has presented the facility of 12.1 hectares of cannabis greenhouses ready for cultivation. The seedlings are planted to contract growers and their own land to produce high-quality cannabis for medical usage. The company has even announced that it has got the approval of National Cultivar Registry for listing 10 unique CBD and THC strains. The business can proceed for commercial registration, manufacturing, and sale of strains to be used by Colombian companies and even exported to the worldwide markets.
Colombian companies can really succeed if they follow the dedicated and ethical approach to produce high-quality cannabis for spiritual and medicinal usage. Many countries are heading towards legalization of cannabis and it is quite sure that the market will bloom with the growing trends and research for cannabis.

Top 3 Cannabis Stocks Higher on Colombian Growth Story

Colombia has begun to transform itself into the multi-dollar industry cannabis pharma industry. The weed growers estimate that the region would capture 1/5th of the total market share which is projected to a value of $40 billion a year. The investors in Colombia are making its potential towards the new approach of resourceful cannabis sources with the business-oriented regulatory environment. Colombia has the most suitable climate for cannabis with even distribution of light and dark phases (12-hours duration) in a day. There is low-cost labor available with promoting infrastructure for the export business.
The legalization of medical cannabis in Columbia is expected to be highly fruitful to various cannabis stocks. We’ve listed here three most prominent stocks which would have the major positive impact by the legalized status of cannabis.
Khiron Life Sciences Corporation (OTC: KHRNF)
This company was one of the primary licensed medical cannabis companies in the country. They have been developing cannabis products for medical purposes and are even involved in the production of nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products. The company was founded in 2017 and has cultivation licensing for low and high THC.
In recent times, the company announced the partnership with Dixie for creating a lining of cannabis-infused products to the Latin America market. The aim of the company is to become front-runners in the quickly growing legal cannabis markets. The company also creates a way for developing new products and brands according to different regions for allowing the full use of the changes resulting from the legalization of cannabis throughout the region. The recent news of the company is for making its understanding with Dayacann which is the first company to obtain cannabis cultivation license in Chile region. It is a positive point for the company to access the commercialized products to meet the needs of approximately 1.8M patients.
Blueberries Medical Corporation (CNSX: BBM)
Blueberries Medical Corporation (BBM) entered into the joint venture with harmony and Life SAS for the operation of their medical centers as El Manantial. This is among the rapidly growing medical centers in the region of Colombia and represents over seven thousand patients at present. The company is expected to grow this number by 7 times in the coming 3 years. Additionally, the company has made plans for building 2 Good Elaboration Practices-certified pharmacies for supporting this initiative. The company has made plans for treatment-focusing education programs for helping the physicians for drafting cannabis-based treatment options for the patients.
The joint venture with El Manantial gives tremendous options for the company to acquire patients in the Colombian market. The focus of the company in cannabis-based products for treating a broader spectrum of patients would be an ultimate success for the patients and doctors. The treatments are built for the benefit of community needs and will have a broader scope in the long run.
PharmaCielo Limited (OTC: PHCEF)
PharmaCielo Limited works with its subsidiary in cultivation, processing, production, and supply of medical-grade cannabis oil extracts in the region of Colombia and the global level. It provides cannabidiol and THC focused extracts for distributorship in medical clinics, pharmacies, and cosmetic companies. The operations of the company are based in Colombia and they have been granted a licensing for 10 CBD and THC strains.

Legal c will be profitable for the state of Colombia

The expansion of the marijuana market has grown its wings with the legalization of the drug in recreational use in Canada. There are a number of US states allowing medical and recreational use of cannabis. The trends in the cannabis sector are proof that it has significantly grown its importance in these nations and there have been many supplies made for export in these regions. The international markets are becoming more outstanding and the states are looking forward to gaining higher revenues with pot stock attractions. Colombia is the newest state to legalize medical marijuana and it will have a brighter aspect for the companies having the stocks significantly grown towards a higher level.
These are the penny stocks which will have a positive impact on the Colombian decision for legalizing the cannabis:
Aleafia Health (ALEAF)
This Canadian company has vertical integration and operates for cultivation and R&D divisions. The company is under the big expansion process through new medical clinics, education centers, strategic acquisitions, and newer growth resourcefulness. The balance sheet of the company is towards higher graphs and is expected to expand with the greater competencies. The stock value is now at $1.21 level and is expected to increase with the growing trends.
MediPharm Labs (MLCPF)
This Canadian cannabis company works to extract, distill and purify the cannabis for different uses. The company generated more than $10 M value in revenues after getting the sales license. The company will eventually supply cannabis oil concentrates to AusCann Group Holdings (Australia). The stocks have surpassed the value of $3.5 and could become a strong mover in the coming phases. The analysts mark this stock as a worthy pick among the cannabis listings in Canada and the US.
Blueberries Medical (BBRRF)
This company is based in Ontario, Canada and recently started trading on CSE also. It provides attractive solutions for the Latin America Cannabis market. The company has recently done the acquisition of 37 acres of agricultural property in Columbia which is a promoting move. The state of Columbia will benefit from newly permitted cannabis. Blueberries plan to build a 1.3 million-sq-feet cannabis greenhouse facility under the same areal. The companytakes advantage of Columbian land and natural resources to produce the electricity costs below the market zone. The stock prices will reach to half a dollar value very soon.
Green Organic Dutchman Holdings (TGODF)
This organic cannabis producer is traded on TSE after May 2018. The company is highly profitable and a bit underrated as for now. The times will come when TGODF stock will be among the best cannabis investments. The company has 4 cultivation and processing facilities in Canada, the Caribbean, and Europe. The company produces the largest organic cannabis in Canada with lower energy costs with its partnership with Eaton. The stock price is a few cents lesser than $3 and is expected to have better values in the coming stages.

Colombian Export Edge for three Canadian Cannabis Stocks

The Canadian cannabis stocks are influenced by Colombia’s decision for permitting medical cannabis exports to Canada. The authorization from the Colombian government was done recently on February 7, 2019. The contract for importing and exporting cannabis was awarded to a private company Clever Leaves, which is funded by Northern Swan Holdings based in New York. The company can now begin the shipping of medical cannabis to Canada for testing the standards of cannabis. If the results come out on positive notes, it should be a way to open the opportunity for the other cannabis companies for beginning the import and export of medical cannabis through Canada.
There are many companies benefiting from the medical marijuana sector. The legalization in Colombia for allowance of medical cannabis would be another way to seek out for the most profitable options for investments. Penny stocks should be purchased vigilantly and with full research from the investor. Three important Canadian cannabis stocks having operations in Colombia which would certainly benefit the new cannabis export laws in the country are given below. You can view the stocks and draft your own opinion regarding them. It will be ultimately helpful in making your appropriate selection for the Columbian Export stocks.

PharmaCielo (TSXV: PCLO)
PharmaCielo is a Canadian cannabis company focusing on the supply and processing of natural cannabis oil extracts and the associated products to the major distribution channels. The company has its headquarters in Rionegro, Colombia and it is the nursery and propagation center. The total cultivation capacity of the company is 139 hectares. The company began its trading on the TSX Venture Exchange on January 19. The monthly return of the company is rising gradually and the market capitalization has reached to a level of $740 million.
Khiron Life Sciences Corporation (CVE: KHRN)
Khiron Life Sciences is a Canadian company having its major operations in Columbia. The company has a potential market for 6 million patients in Colombia and about 68 million in Latin America with future expansion. The Company works for medical marijuana research applications and has got approval for the commercialization of its cosmeceutical product line in Peru. The stock prices of the company are improving with its joint association with Dixie Brands, Inc. for the introduction of the cannabis-infused products in Latin America. The market capital of the company will soon reach $250 million.
Blueberries Medical Corporation (CNSX: BBM)
Blueberries Medical Corporation is a cannabis company having its operations in Bogotá Savanna, Colombia. It started trading on CSE on February 6. The company has received expertise in agriculture, medicine, extraction, and pharmaceutical segment. There is licensing done for cultivating, distribution, production, and export of CBD and THC. The market cap of the company is not too high at present but with the increased number of investors, it can go up to a higher level and get better revenues. The stocks are priced at $0.64 at present.

Colombia’s approval for Medical Cannabis

Marijuana has been used for thousands of years. The major purpose of this drug for the people was to get high and it is majorly possible due to the primary ingredient THC (TetraHydroCannabinol). There are many medicinal purposes for which this drug is being used and it possesses some therapeutic properties if taken in right form, amount and timing. There are people who still use this drug for getting high and this is the recreational use of cannabis. However, taking an account of the medical uses, there are many countries which have permitted cannabis usage for various segments. Colombia is one of the recent nations which has allowed medical use of cannabis.

Medical cannabis is presently allowed in 31 countries in the world. Despite terming it as ‘illegal’, there are many states which have decriminalized personal usage of marijuana. The different between legalization and decriminalization is that legalization permits the use of marijuana without any legal complications or bounds whereas, decriminalization means the relaxation of the criminal penalties for violating the laws related to marijuana.

The Food and Drug Administration had already given approval for synthetic cannabinoids (Nabilone and Dronabinol) for treating vomiting and nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy. The US Food and Drug Administration has given approval to 3 cannabinoids. In the recent phases, GW Pharmaceuticals has attained success in treating two forms of epilepsy by getting FDA approval for the drug Epidiolex. The legalization of recreational marijuana is not much prevalent but many states are under the process to pass this on.

There are 3 major types of stocks included for medical or recreational marijuana sector:
Marijuana growers: Cultivation and plantation of cannabis plants in indoor facilities or greenhouses, harvesting the crops and finally, selling it to the customers
Cannabis-focusing biotech companies: These companies perform research and development for developing drugs including cannabinoids.

Service providers: There are service providers associated with every industry and cannabis sector is no different. It includes the various levels of providers linked at every stage to establish a smooth supply of cannabis throughout the region and even on the export platform.

Marijuana stocks were volatile in 2018 with the unsure decision by the government for legalization matters. The stocks were highly speculative and the new companies with great ideas were even seen with a dilemmatic eye. The administration of Trump has given a green-signal to many companies to initiate their business with the altered business-models and the legalized approach towards investments.

The markets suffered a lot with the ongoing sluggish decisions made by the governments. Colombia’s decision for permitting medical usage of cannabis has given a new start to the wide range of countries to initiate the process of even exporting the cannabis oil to Canada for testing and review. This primary step has given hope to the companies to develop new ideas and approach for generating cannabis-based businesses. Clever Leaves is the first company to attain the permission from the government to submit cannabis oil samples to Canada and it will be a success for the Colombian administration to get the approval from the company for getting the best quality medical cannabis.